Major Developments: Gas mask and traffic signal
1) an inventor and businessman
2) invented the gas mask and traffic signal
3) discovered and developed a chemical hair-processing and straightening solution.
Garnett Morgan is an inventor and businessman who created the gas mask, originally known as the “smoke hood”. Morgan first created the “safety hood” to help firefighters navigate smoke-filled buildings, later modifying it to carry its own air supply, making it the world’s first effective gas mask. Morgan also invented the third segment of the traffic light, which reduced car accidents. In addition, Morgan discovered and developed a chemical hair-processing and straightening solution.
Major Developments: Lubricators
2) inventor and engineer
3) the “Real McCoy”
Elijah McCoy was a Canadian born African American inventor and engineer who help to improve efficiency and eliminate the frequent stopping of trains due to lubrication. In 1872 he developed a “lubricating cup” that could automatically drip oil when and where needed. It was so popular that when other inventors attempted to steal his idea and sell their own versions of the device, companies were not fooled. They insisted on the authentic device, calling it “the Real McCoy.”
Major Developments: Mathematical Models to Explain Gamma Radiation
1) a nuclear scientist, mechanical engineer, and mathematician
2) University of Chicago’s youngest student
3) developed a shield against gamma radiation
Jesse Ernest Wilkins, Jr. was a nuclear scientist, mechanical engineer, and mathematician. He became the University of Chicago’s youngest student at the age of 13 and earned his doctorate degree in mathematics at the age of 19. His greatest contribution to scholarship was the development of mathematical models to explain gamma radiation and his work on developing a shielding against gamma radiation.
Major Developments: World’s Fastest Computer
2) invented the world’s fastest the computer
3) won the Gordon Bell Prize Emeagwali is a Nigerian computer scientist who studied the construction of the honeycomb, which led to the invention of the world’s first supercomputer. His computers are currently being used to forecast the weather and to predict the likelihood and effects of future global warming and can perform 3.1 billion calculations per second. In 1989, Emeagwali won the Gordon Bell Prize for price-performance and high-performance computing applications.
Major Developments: Shockwave (the genesis of animation on the web) and online video
1) Developed several internet technologies, including Shockwave Flash, Animated GIFs, Brightcove, Joost, and The Feedroom.
2) She served as Chief Digital Service Officer for the United States Department of Education during the Presidency of Barack Obama.
3) Went to Brown University Gelobter is a computer scientist technologist.
Gelobter played a major role in the creation of Shockwave, used for powerful multimedia playback, as well as the emergence of online video. Gelobter has worked on the senior management team at Hulu, was the Interim Head of Digital for BET Networks, and is the CEO and co-founder of tEQuitable, a platform used to address issues of bias, discrimination, and harassment in the workplace.
Major Developments: Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
1) Vice President of Engineering at Google
2) invented the Voice-over Internet Protocol
3) Previously served as Senior Vice President of Research and Development at AT&T Labs
Croak has contributed to the expansion of technology with her discovery of VoIP. VoIP is the technology that converts your voice into a digital signal, allowing you to make a call directly from a computer, a VoIP phone, or other data-driven devices. Croak attended the University of California and Princeton University, graduating with a Ph.D. in qualitative analysis and social psychology. In 2013, Dr. Croak was inducted into the Women in Technology International’s Hall of Fame. On top of her accomplishments, Dr. Croak also serves on the Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights Education Center’s board.
Major Developments: The blood bank
1) a physician, surgeon, and medical researcher
2) Resigned from American Red Cross after a ruling that the blood of African Americans would be segregated
3) invented the blood bank
Charles Drew was a physician, surgeon, and medical researcher, for the American Red Cross, who played a major role in developing the first large-scale blood bank and blood plasma program. Drew also invented bloodmobiles, refrigerated trucks used to transport blood.
Major Developments: Super Soaker (water gun), Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Converter
1) an inventor and engineer
2) Johnson and his research company reside here, in Atlanta
3) invented the Super Soaker (water gun) and the Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Converter
Lonnie Johnson is an inventor and engineer. Johnson was an aerospace engineer for NASA, being the senior systems engineer for the Galileo Project as well as serving in the U.S. Air Force. Johnson also founded the Johnson Research and Development Company, incorporated. Johnson’s most recent developments include transforming heat into electricity with the goal of making green energy more affordable.
Major Developments: IBM computer, pacemaker
Otis Boykin was an inventor and engineer who took an interest in working with resistors. Boykin received a patent for a wire precision resistor which would be key to the invention of radios and televisions. Boykin also created a device that could withstand major changes in temperature and pressure that were used by the U.S. military for guided missiles and International Business Machines (IBM) for computers. One of Boykin’s last inventions was the control unit for the pacemaker.
Major Developments: closed-circuit television security
1) an inventor
2) from Queens, New York
3) invented the closed-circuit television security system
Brown created the home security system (1966) along with her husband Albert Brown because the police were very slow responding to emergencies. Her original invention consisted of peepholes, a camera, monitors, and a two-way microphone. The finishing touch was an alarm button that, when pressed, would immediately contact the police. Her invention paved the way for modern closed-circuit television systems which is a vital piece in the use of surveillance, home security systems, push-button alarm triggers, and traffic monitoring
Major Developments: carbon filament
2) from Chelsea, Massachusetts
3) invented carbon filament
Latimer was a member of Thomas Edison’s research team, during which time he created the carbon filament, a vital piece of the invention of the incandescent light bulb. An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light. Latimer also worked with Alexander Graham Bell in drafting the design of the telephone. In addition to his contribution to the inventions of the light bulb and the telephone, Latimer assisted in designing the improvements made to railroad car bathrooms and the early air conditioning unit.
Major Developments: touch-tone telephone, caller ID, fiber-optic cable
1) a theoretical psychists and inventor
2) from Washington D.C.
3) invented touch-tone telephone, caller ID, fiber-optic cable
In her early childhood, she studied the eating habits of honeybees and eventually decided to continue her studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), receiving a bachelors and doctoral degree in physics. She was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from the institute. While conducting research at Bell Laboratories, Dr. Jackson made her discoveries in telecommunications which opened doors to the invention of the portable fax, touch-tone telephone, solar cells, fiber optic cables, and the technology behind caller ID and call waiting. She is currently the president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York.
Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson is an African-American mathematician whose calculations of orbital mechanics as a NASA employee were critical to the success of the first and subsequent U.S. manned spaceflights. Wikipedia